Harvard Business Review article in 1958 referred to Information Technology as consisting of three parts namely; – computational data processing, decision support, and business software.
Refers to all the parts of a computer that can be touched.
- a) Input devices – physical devices used to feed data into the computer. Include;- mouse, keyboard, touchpad, touchscreen, scanner, webcam and microphone
- b) Output devices – devices that make information processed by the computer visible to the user. Include; – printers, screen/monitor, and speaker.
- c) Data storage devices –Mass storage data devices include Compact disk, USB flash drives, SD card, hard disks, online storage, and DVDs.
They are generally referred to as computer programs and include:-
- a) Operating systems manages the access to the hardware devices and controls the execution of programs. Include Windows 7, Windows 8, Linux and Android.
- b) Graphical User Interface makes it possible for one to operate application software using graphical elements such as icons, shortcuts, buttons, etc.
- c) Application Software is designed to perform specific tasks such as word processing (e.g., Word), presentation (e.g., PowerPoint or LibreOffice), Web browser (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox), etc.
This is a collection of computers or other devices connected to one another to allow the sharing of data. Examples include; – Internet (the most extensive computer network), LAN (Local Area Network), WAN (Wide Area Network), Intranet and Extranet.
4. Data security
Many computer users store essential and confidential information on their devices which is not for everyone to read or access. Thus one has to protect it from access by unauthorized persons or loss by use of passcodes, backups or firewall.
5. IT in Business and everyday life
In recent years there have been rapid developments in computer technology, causing growth to change significantly. It is now used in banking, governing and even working from home. Communication can be made across continents between different person via E-mails, weblog and instant messaging.
Furthermore, online-virtual communities have been created in the form of- Twitter, Facebook, Myspace- offering thousands of people in different geographical locations to form one community.
Anyone who writes or draws or takes a photo automatically owns a copyright in that he can sell copies of his work or if a third party copies the text without permission he should be compensated for illegal copies.
Several terms describe the permitted use of software, and these include freeware, shareware, OpenSource and commercial software.
There you have it, with the above steps you are now well equipped with the basics in IT and can perform basic tasks on your device without requiring help.